Slides for the final test

Dear students,
please, watch also other material available on the blog. Slides alone are boring.

Renaissance II
Reformation and modern sports
Industrial revolution and modern sports
Modern sports and Olympics
Olympics: from Athens (1896) to Berlin (1932)
Socialism, communism and sports
Football and globalization
Winter sports
Tour de France and « lieu de mémoire »
Swimming and bath
Swimming II
Paralympic games


Paralympic Games (Slides)

"Four visually-impaired athletes all finished the Paralympic 1,500m final with faster times than the Rio Olympic gold medal winner.
The ground-breaking race saw Algeria's Abdellatif Baka smash the Paralympic world record with a time of three minutes and 48.29 seconds on Monday.
This is more than 1.7 seconds faster than U.S. runner Matthew Centrowitz who claimed gold in the men's Olympic 1,500m final (...)

Gold: BAKA Abdellatif (WR)
Silver: DEMISSE Tamiru
Bronze: KIRWA Henry

Start list:

DEMISSE Tamiru Ethiopia
ALOUI Bilel Tunisia
KIRWA Henry Kenya
JACQUES Yeltsin Brazil
WIETECKI Lukasz Poland
AGRIPINO dos SANTOS Julio Cesar Brazil
BAKA Fouad Algeria
BENIBRAHIM Youssef Morocco
HAMMAMI BilelTunisia
BAKA Abdellatif Algeria
MAME Abdelillah Morocco
OUELLET Guillaume Canada
DAVIS Chaz United States of America
CLIFFORD Jaryd Australia


Swimming Pool II (law: recent cases) (Slides)

 (Remember: be critical when you read newspaper articles and make your own judgment) 

PS: see Wikipedia contributors, "Reasonable accommodation," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reasonable_accommodation&oldid=751311978 (accessed November 24, 2016).  
(Again, be critical with Wikipedia and check your information) 

Swimming and baths (Slides)

(In the class we will watch from 16:21)

(In the class, we will watch from 46:08)


Football and Christmas truce (Slides)

Paul MacCartney, Pipes of Peace

Article of the day: Battle of the Sexes: four decades after Billie Jean King's triumph, women still fight for equal billing in sports

Battle of the Sexes: four decades after Billie Jean King's triumph, women still fight for equal billing in sports

Jo Ward, University of East London
In 1973, an unusual tennis match attracted an enormous amount of attention. Around 90m people around the world watched the women’s champion Billie Jean King take on Bobby Riggs, who had been men’s world number one in the 1940s. Dubbed the Battle of the Sexes, it was arranged after Riggs repeatedly poured scorn on women’s tennis.
Before the match, the players exchanged gifts. Bobby gave Billie a giant Sugar Daddy lollipop. She returned the gesture by presenting him with a pig.
The symbolism wasn’t meant to be subtle. This was a match between feminism and chauvinism – and much more was at stake than the US$100,000 prize money, especially for King. She had left the professional tour, due to the earning disparity (men received 12 times as much as women in some events) and was leading the newly formed Women’s Tennis Association (WTA).
King, and feminism, triumphed in the match – she won 6-4, 6-3, 6-3 – which has now been made into a film starring Emma Stone and Steve Carell. But have things really moved on since 1973?
On the surface things look pretty good. For a decade, women and men have received equal pay at all four tennis grand slams. Wimbledon was the last bastion of inequality in prize money, but eventually bowed to pressure from a host of female players, led by Venus Williams, in 2007.

Tennis is the only sport to boast a female in the Forbes Highest Paid Athletes list of 2017 (Serena Williams at #51), and draws large viewing figures in which the women at times eclipse the men. The financial status of female tennis players has certainly evolved.
But have attitudes changed enough since Riggs declared that women belonged “in the bedroom and kitchen”? The recent scandals in Hollywood and Westminster might suggest not. Even within tennis there is still an undercurrent of chauvinism that has profound implications on female performance and participation.

Locker room talk

Just last year Raymond Moore, boss of the Indian Wells Tournament, suggested that the WTA Tour was “very lucky” because it “rides on the coat-tails of the men”. He suggested that women players should “go down every night on [their] knees and thank God that Roger Federer and Rafa Nadal were born”. He later apologised and retracted his comments after a spate of negative responses, including from King.

Then John McEnroe claimed that if Serena Williams played the men’s circuit, “she’d be, like, 700 in the world”. His comments led to a predictable outpouring of chauvinism on social media.
On a more positive note, Andy Murray continues to fight casual sexism with his unique blend of boredom and disdain. He corrected a journalist who stated that Sam Querrey was “the first US player to reach a major semi-final since 2009”. “Male player”, Murray reminded him, with his head almost in hands. And when congratulated by a TV host who wrongly suggested Murray was the first player to win two Olympic golds, he shot back with a smile: “I think Venus and Serena have won about four each.”
But, notwithstanding Murray’s support, there is a serious problem with the negative stereotypes that still pervade sport. This is a phenomenon known as “stereotype threat”. The psychological effect of stereotypes and their impact on performance has been studied across myriad domains – including the effect on women in sport.
So while there are obvious and observable differences between men and women, biology alone might not be the whole picture. Women and men are operating in entirely different psychological climates.
Female athletes and sports are invisible in the media, receiving only a 7% share of coverage. Every time you turn on the TV or read a sports article, the coverage reinforces the the stereotype that sport is for men.
Females are also vastly outnumbered in participation. In the UK there are 2m fewer women than men regularly playing sport, further entrenching the view that sport is a man’s world. If being invisible and outnumbered weren’t problematic enough, women and girls also contend with negative stereotypes that span both ends of an equally pernicious continuum from not being athletic enough to not being feminine or pretty enough.
With all this distraction it’s a wonder that women can perform at all athletically. And it’s no surprise that, even when sport can attract girls, those numbers plummet as girls drop out during puberty – just 12% of girls aged 14 meet the official guidelines for physical activity.

Love all

Sport needs a culture change. Even with the heavy psychological burden of negative stereotypes, there are amazing examples of female athleticism, which don’t get the attention they deserve. There are women who can sprint 100m to within a second of Usain Bolt. That’s a 10% difference, I know, but I defy anyone to claim it’s not athletic.
Sabine Lisicki rocketed a 131mph serve in 2014, faster than anything Roger Federer has hit in years. Women achieve incredible feats all the time – but for as long as comparisons are drawn with men they will continue to be ignored and little girls will continue to be denied their role models.
To spin it a different way, no one would dare suggest that distance runner Mo Farah is less of an athlete than Bolt because he can’t run as fast. Or that boxer Manny Pacquiao is less sporty than Anthony Joshua because he doesn’t hit as hard. So why do so many men insist on comparing male and female athletes in such a pointless way?
It’s time we started really celebrating women for the work they put in and the performances they produce. Until more amazing women are visible, it will continue to be only a minority of women who survive and thrive in sport.
The ConversationUntil we get equal opportunity, exposure and respect, to match the hard-won equal prize money, there is much work to do. There have been gains, but attitudes still haven’t changed enough to make sport a welcome place for women. Forty-four years after King’s victory, the battle continues.

Jo Ward, PhD candidate in psychology. Former professional tennis player, current coach, coach educator and speaker, University of East London

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.


Olympics (2) and Leni Riefenstahl, Olympia (Slides)

Modern use of Olympia:

Jack Johnson: first global star of sport

"The legendary world heavyweight boxing champion, John Arthur 'Jack' Johnson, visits Manchester.

The charisma of world heavyweight boxing champion Jack Johnson is palpable in these shots of his visit to Manchester. In the build-up to his fight with British and Empire champion, Bombardier Wells, due to be held at Earl's Court on 2 October 1911, Johnson toured Britain's music halls where his sparring demonstrations proved hugely popular.

It's likely that his tour of Manchester Docks would have coincided with appearances at Manchester's theatres, quite possibly the Regent Theatre, seen here. In the event, under the influence of Methodist minister, Rev. F.B. Meyer, and other clergymen, the Chairman of the London Council prohibited the scheduled fight with Wells on 'religious' grounds, threatening to withdraw Earls Court's licence should it go ahead. The venue's manager reluctantly cancelled the fight but Johnson's music hall tour continued. The conservative clergymen feared that images of a black sporting hero might have a negative impact on the morality of British people."

Modern sports and 1896 Olympics (Slides)

Racing Calendar

Sorry, I could not find an image of the first year (1773)
This is the 1775 issue


Article of the day: Tricking and treating has a history

Tricking and treating has a history

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Halloween parade in New York. AP Photo/Andres Kudacki
Regina Hansen, Boston University
Over the past few decades, Halloween celebrations have gained in popularity, not only with children and families, but with all those fascinated with the spooky and scary.
As a scholar of myth and religion in popular culture, I look at Halloween with particular interest – especially the ways in which today’s Halloween tradition came to evolve.

A pre-Christian tradition

Many practices associated with Halloween have origins in the pre-Christian, or pagan, religion of the Celts, the original inhabitants of the British Isles, as well as parts of France and Spain.
The Celts held a feast called Samhain – a celebration of the harvest, the end of summer and the turn of the year. Samhain was separated by six months from Beltane, an observance of the beginning of summer, which took place on May 1 and is now known as May Day. Because Samhain led into the cold, fruitless and dark days of winter, the feast was also an opportunity to contemplate death and to remember those who had gone before.
The Celts believed that the veil between the living and the dead was thinner during this time, and that spirits of the dead could walk on Earth. Bonfires were lit to ward off the coming winter darkness, but also to sacrifice livestock and crops as offerings to the gods and spirits.
Some scholars – because of the long historical association of the Celts with the Romans – have also linked the modern observance of Halloween to the Roman festival honoring Pomona, the goddess of fruit trees. During that festival people practiced divination, which uses occult for gaining knowledge of the future.
One of the practices was similar to the modern-day Halloween tradition of bobbing for apples – a party game in which people attempt to use only their teeth to pick up apples floating in a tub or a bowl of water. Originally, it was believed that whoever could bite the apple first would get married the soonest.

Later influences

Many of the modern-day practices of Halloween and even its name were influenced by Christianity.
Halloween coincides with Christian celebrations honoring the dead. In the autumn, Christians celebrate All Saints’ Day – a day to honor martyrs who died for their faith and saints. They also celebrate All Souls’ Day – a day to remember the dead and to pray for souls more generally.
The history of how these dates came to coincide is worth noting: It suggests ways in which the pagan holiday may have been absorbed into Christian observance. Starting around the seventh century A.D., Christians celebrated All Saints Day on May 13. In the mid-eighth century, however, Pope Gregory III moved All Saint’s Day from May 13 to Nov. 1, so that it coincided with the date of Samhain.
Although there is disagreement about whether the move was made purposely so as to absorb the pagan practice, the fact is that from then on Christian and pagan traditions did begin to merge. In England, for example, All Saints Day came to be known as All Hallows Day. The night before became All Hallows Eve, Hallowe’en, or Halloween, as it is now known.
Around A.D. 1000, Nov. 2 was established as All Souls Day. Throughout the Middle Ages, this three-day period was celebrated with Masses. But the Pagan tradition of appeasing the spirits of the dead remained, including the Christian – now Catholic – practice of lighting candles for the souls in Purgatory.

Guy Fawkes Day celebrations in East Sussex, England. Peter Trimming, CC BY-SA

People still light bonfires on Oct. 31, especially those in regions where the Celts originally settled. In Ireland, bonfires are lit on Halloween. In England, the bonfire tradition has been transferred to Nov. 5. This is known as Guy Fawkes Day and commemorates the Gunpowder Plot, a thwarted attempt by Catholics, led by Guy Fawkes, to blow up the Houses of Parliament in 1605.
There are other practices that continue today. In England, for example, one of the practices on All Hallows Eve was to go door to door begging for small currant biscuits called soul cakes, which were offered in exchange for prayers. While not all scholars agree, it is part of popular belief that this practice is echoed in the modern tradition of trick-or-treating.
In Ireland, people would walk the streets carrying candles in a hollowed-out turnip, the precursor of today’s jack o’lantern, or the carved pumpkin.

The carved pumpkins. Sarah Ackerman, CC BY

When the tradition came to the US

Halloween, however, did not make its way to the United States until the 1840s, when waves of immigrants from the Celtic countries of Ireland and Scotland arrived. These immigrants brought with them their tradition of Halloween, including dancing, masquerading, fortune-telling games and – in some places – the practice of parading the neighborhood asking for treats, such as nuts and fruits and coins.
By the late 19th century, some stores began offering commercially made candy for Halloween.
The North American observance of Halloween also included everything from minor pranks to some major vandalism, as well as a lot of drinking. By the early 20th century, however, many municipalities and churches attempted to curb this behavior by turning Halloween into a family celebration with children’s parties and, eventually, trick-or-treating as we know it today.

Halloween today

Today, Halloween has become a multi-million-dollar industry.
Candy sales, costumes, decorations, seasonal theme parks, annual television specials and October horror movie premieres are some of the many ways North Americans spend their money on the holiday.

Trick-or-treaters in costume. AP Photo/Ted S. Warren

But Halloween has come to mean many things to many people. Roman Catholics and many mainline Protestants, for example, continue to observe All Saints’ Day for its spiritual significance. In the Catholic Church it is considered a holy day of obligation, when people are required to go to Mass. All Souls’ Day is celebrated soon after. In fact, the entire month of November is set aside as a time to pray for the dead.
On the other hand, some people reject Halloween because of its pagan origins and its perceived association with witchcraft and the devil. Others see it as too commercial or primarily for children.
The ConversationNonetheless, whether people see it as a children’s holiday, a sacred ritual, a harvest festival, a night of mischief, a sophisticated adult celebration or a way to make money, Halloween has become an integral part of North American culture.
Regina Hansen, Senior Lecturer, Rhetoric, Boston University
This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.